Advertisement

Geant4 physics list comparison for the simulation of phase-contrast mammography (XPulse project)

Published:March 28, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2019.03.026

      Highlights

      • Geant4 Standard EM option 4 and Livermore Physics Lists are in good agreement with EGSnrc in the energy range 20–100 keV.
      • We confirmed that breast dose in mammography screening can be minimised if a beam energy around 60 keV is used.
      • We confirmed that phase-contrast imaging is a promising technique for routine mammography screening.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Early and accurate detection of the disease is a major factor in patient survival. To this end, phase-contrast imaging has gained significant interest in recent years. The aim of this work was to validate the physics models of a Geant4 mammography imaging simulation (in the context of the XPulse project) by comparing to EGSnrc results.

      Methods

      We used three Geant4 electromagnetic physics lists of the version 10.4 of the toolkit: Standard, Livermore and Penelope. We calculated energy distributions in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms and breast doses in DICOM images. The simulations used photon beams of energies 20–100 keV. The Geant4 calculations were compared with EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulations.

      Results

      We found a very good agreement between the Standard Electromagnetic option 4 and Livermore Physics Lists (within 1% for all beam energies). Larger differences were found between Standard Electromagnetic option 4 and Penelope Physics Lists (about 4%). The agreement of longitudinal energy distributions between Geant4 Standard Electromagnetic option 4 and EGSnrc was good in water and light biological materials, but important discrepancies were found in heavy elements. We confirmed with both codes that dose to the breast is minimal at beam energy around 60 keV.

      Conclusions

      Overall, we found good agreement between the option 4 of the Standard Electromagnetic physics list and Livermore physics lists of Geant4, as well as EGSnrc for materials relevant to mammography screening. Further investigations are needed for the case of heavier materials.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Yaffe M.J.
        • Mainprize J.G.
        Risk of radiation-induced breast cancer from mammographic screening.
        Radiology. 2011; 258: 98-105
        • Dance D.R.
        • Sechopoulos I.
        Dosimetry in x-ray-based breast imaging.
        Phys Med Biol. 2016; 61: R271-R304
        • Bosmans H.
        • De Hauwere A.
        • Lemmens K.
        • Zanca F.
        • Thierens H.
        • Van Ongeval C.
        • et al.
        Technical and clinical breast cancer screening performance indicators for computed radiography versus direct digital radiography.
        Eur Radiol. 2013; 23: 2891-2898
        • Yaffe M.J.
        • Bloomquist A.K.
        • Hunter D.M.
        • Mawdsley G.E.
        • Chiarelli A.M.
        • Muradali D.
        • et al.
        Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program.
        Phys Med. 2013; 40: 121915-121925
        • Sechopoulos I.
        A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process.
        Phys Med. 2013; 40014301
        • Sechopoulos I.
        A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.
        Phys Med. 2013; 40014302
        • Sarno A.
        • Mettivier G.
        • Russo P.
        Dedicated breast computed tomography: basic aspects.
        Phys Med. 2015; 42: 2786
        • Li K.
        • Ge Y.
        • Garrett J.
        • Bevins N.
        • Zambelli J.
        • Chen G.H.
        Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: proof-of-concept experimental studies.
        Phys Med. 2014; 41011903
        • Szafraniec M.B.
        • Millard T.P.
        • Ignatyev K.
        • Speller R.D.
        • Olivo A.
        Proof-of-concept demonstration of edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast imaging combined with tomosynthesis.
        Phys Med Biol. 2014; 59: N1-N10
        • Allison J.
        • et al.
        Geant4 developments and applications.
        IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2006; 53: 270-278https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2006.869826
        • Agostinelli S.
        • et al.
        Geant4 – a simulation toolkit.
        Nucl Instrum Meth Phys Res. 2003; A506: 250-303https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01368-8
        • Allison J.
        • et al.
        Recent developments in Geant4.
        Nucl Instrum Meth. 2016; A835: 186-225
        • Sechopoulos I.
        • Suryanarayanan S.
        • Vedantham S.
        • D’Orsi C.
        • Karellas A.
        Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast.
        Phys Med. 2007; 34: 221-232
        • Sechopoulos I.
        • D’Orsi C.
        Glandular radiation dose in tomosynthesis of the breast using tungsten targets.
        J Appl Clin. Med Phys. 2008; 9: 161-171
        • Sechopoulos I.
        • Bliznakova K.
        • Qin X.
        • Fei B.
        • Feng S.S.J.
        Characterization of the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation in breast imaging dosimetry.
        Phys Med. 2012; 39: 5050-5059
        • Rogers D.W.O.
        • Kawrakow I.
        • Seuntjens J.P.
        • Walters B.R.B.
        • Mainegra-Hing E.
        NRC user codes for EGSnrc. Technical Report PIRS-702(RevB).
        National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada2003
      1. ICRU. Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurement. ICRU Report 44. 1989.

        • Fedon C.
        • Caballo M.
        • Sechopoulos I.
        Internal breast dosimetry in mammography: Monte Carlo validation in homogeneous and anthropomorphic breast phantoms with a clinical mammography system.
        Med Phys. 2018; 45: 3950-3961
        • Incerti S.
        • Ivanchenko V.
        • Novak M.
        Recent progress of Geant4 electromagnetic physics for calorimeter simulation.
        JINST. 2018; 13: C02054
        • Sarno A.
        • Mettivier G.
        • Di Lillo F.
        • Russo P.
        A Monte Carlo study of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients in mammography.
        Phys Med Biol. 2017; 62: 306-325
        • Mettivier G.
        • Fedon C.
        • Di Lillo F.
        • Longo R.
        • Sarno A.
        • Tromba G.
        • et al.
        Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation.
        Phys Med Biol. 2016; 61: 569-587
        • Fedon C.
        • Longo F.
        • Mettivier G.
        • Longo R.
        GEANT4 for breast dosimetry: parameters optimization study.
        Phys Med Biol. 2015; 60: N311-N323
        • Krejci F.
        • Jakubek J.
        • Kroupa M.
        Hard x-ray phase contrast imaging using single absorption grating and hybrid semiconductor pixel detector.
        Rev Sci Instrum. 2010; 81113702