Original paper| Volume 65, P150-156, September 2019

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Improving bleeding detector features for electron intraoperative radiotherapy

Published:August 29, 2019DOI:


      • Improving a bleeding detector for PMMA applicators with minimum visual impact.
      • The developed detector avoids the asymmetry in detection when the applicator is tilted.
      • The conditioning circuit features high sensitivity and low-noise.
      • A minimum fluid depth of 0.5 cm can be detected with a linear behaviour.
      • The detector features: low-cost and easily integration into the applicator.



      The aim of this work is to improve the potential bleeding detection during intraoperative radiotherapy with linac polymethyl methacrylate applicators (PMMA), based on one previously developed. The improvements carried out have been focused on: i) minimizing the impact of the detector on the visual through the plastic applicators and ii) avoiding the asymmetry in the detection capability when the applicator is tilted.


      Simulations have been made to select the geometry that provides a reduced visual impact on the applicator as well as allowing an independent response with the tilting angle of the applicator. A low-noise circuit for signal conditioning has been developed. Measurements have been made on three setups: 10 cm, 7 cm and 4 cm applicator diameters, 0° and 45° tilted.


      The detector has a visibility through the applicator greater than 50%. Due to the geometry, optimal detection is ensured regardless of its orientation when the applicator is tilted. It is possible to detect the presence of fluid well below the typical perturbing fluid depth established by the clinic (1–1.5 cm).


      The detector can distinguish the presence of around 0.5 cm of fluid depth while showing a high visual field through the PMMA applicators and providing a measure that does not depend on the detector orientation when the applicator is tilted. The prototype is ready for its industrialization by embedding it into the applicator for clinical use. The detector would have a significant impact on both the quality assurance and the outcome of the treatment.


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