Research Article| Volume 77, P54-63, September 2020

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Assessment of online adaptive MR-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy of liver cancers

Published:August 09, 2020DOI:


      • MRI provides superior visualization of abdominal anatomy compared to CBCT.
      • MRgRT plan adaptation mitigates organ motion and provides superior dosimetry.
      • Several patients had meaningful reductions in OAR violations with online adaptation.
      • Not all liver SBRT patients materially benefit from online adaptation.
      • Higher plan quality may permit safe dose escalation without compromising quality.



      Online Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) with daily MR-imaging has the potential to improve dosimetric accuracy by accounting for inter-fractional anatomical changes. This study provides an assessment for the feasibility and potential benefits of online adaptive MRI-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of liver cancer.


      Ten patients with liver cancer treated with MR-Guided SBRT were included. Prescription doses ranged between 27 and 50 Gy in 3–5 fx. All SBRT fractions employed daily MR-guided setup while utilizing cine-MR gating. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included duodenum, bowel, stomach, kidneys and spinal cord. Daily MRIs and contours were utilized to create each adapted plan. Adapted plans used the beam-parameters and optimization-objectives from the initial plan. Planning target volume (PTV) coverage and OAR constraints were used to compare non-adaptive and adaptive plans.


      PTV coverage for non-adapted treatment plans was below the prescribed coverage for 32/47 fractions (68%), with 11 fractions failing by more than 10%. All 47 adapted fractions met prescribed coverage. OAR constraint violations were also compared for several organs. The duodenum exceeded tolerance for 5/23 non-adapted and 0/23 for adapted fractions. The bowel exceeded tolerance for 5/34 non-adaptive and 1/34 adaptive fractions. The stomach exceeded tolerance for 4/19 non-adapted and 1/19 for adaptive fractions. Accumulated dose volume histograms were also generated for each patient.


      Online adaptive MR-Guided SBRT of liver cancer using daily re-optimization resulted in better target conformality, coverage and OAR sparing compared with non-adaptive SBRT. Daily adaptive planning may allow for PTV dose escalation without compromising OAR sparing.

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