3D dosimetric validation of ultrasound-guided radiotherapy with a dynamically deformable abdominal phantom

Published:April 23, 2021DOI:


      • A validation phantom underwent multi-dosimeter benchmarking.
      • An ultrasound-guided radiotherapy system was verified with the validation phantom.
      • Phantom measurements were acquired with deformable 3D dosimeters.
      • An improvement in delivery accuracy with the ultrasound-guidance was quantified.
      • The phantom shows potential as a tool for quantifying the impact of image guidance.



      The purpose of this study was to dosimetrically benchmark gel dosimetry measurements in a dynamically deformable abdominal phantom for intrafraction image guidance through a multi-dosimeter comparison. Once benchmarked, the study aimed to perform a proof-of-principle study for validation measurements of an ultrasound image-guided radiotherapy delivery system.


      The phantom was dosimetrically benchmarked by delivering a liver VMAT plan and measuring the 3D dose distribution with DEFGEL dosimeters. Measured doses were compared to the treatment planning system and measurements acquired with radiochromic film and an ion chamber. The ultrasound image guidance validation was performed for a hands-free ultrasound transducer for the tracking of liver motion during treatment.


      Gel dosimeters were compared to the TPS and film measurements, showing good qualitative dose distribution matches, low γ values through most of the high dose region, and average 3%/5 mm γ-analysis pass rates of 99.2%(0.8%) and 90.1%(0.8%), respectively. Gel dosimeter measurements matched ion chamber measurements within 3%. The image guidance validation study showed the measurement of the treatment delivery improvements due to the inclusion of the ultrasound image guidance system. Good qualitative matching of dose distributions and improvements of the γ-analysis results were observed for the ultrasound-gated dosimeter compared to the ungated dosimeter.


      DEFGEL dosimeters in phantom showed good agreement with the planned dose and other dosimeters for dosimetric benchmarking. Ultrasound image guidance validation measurements showed good proof-of-principle of the utility of the phantom system as a method of validating ultrasound-based image guidance systems and potentially other image guidance methods.


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