- •Robust 4D optimization was investigated for carbon ion radiotherapy of lung tumors.
- •Two spot size libraries were compared for hypofractionated treatments.
- •Degradations caused by setup and motion uncertainties were evaluated in repeated 4DCTs.
- •Larger spots increased the lung dose but were highly robust to uncertainties.
- •Deep-seated tumors would benefit from larger spots in terms of plan robustness.
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