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Artifact quantification of venous stents in the MRI environment: Differences between braided and laser-cut designs

      Highlights

      • MRI in novel venous stents is not impaired by susceptibility-induced artifacts.
      • RF-induces artifacts are more complex in braided compared to laser-cut stents.
      • Braided stents can enhance the intraluminal signal due to B1 amplification.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To quantify B0- and B1-induced imaging artifacts of braided venous stents and to compare the artifacts to a set of laser-cut stents used in venous interventions.

      Methods

      Three prototypes of braided venous stents with different geometries were tested in vitro. B0 field distortion maps were measured via the frequency shift Δ f using multi-echo imaging. B1 distortions were quantified using the double angle method. The relative amplitudes B 1 rel were calculated to compare the intraluminal alteration of B1. Measurements were repeated with the stents in three different orientations: parallel, diagonal and orthogonal to B0.

      Results

      At 1.5 T, the braided stents induced a maximum frequency shift of Δ f x < 100 H z . Signal voids were limited to a distance of 2 mm to the stent walls at an echo time of 3 ms. No substantial difference in the B0 field distortions was seen between laser-cut and braided venous stents. B 1 rel maps showed strongly varying distortion patterns in the braided stents with the mean intraluminal B 1 rel ranging from 63 ± 18 % in prototype 1 to 98 ± 38 % in prototype 2. Compared to laser-cut stents the braided stents showed a 5 to 9 times higher coefficient of variation of the intraluminal B 1 rel .

      Conclusion

      Braided venous stent prototypes allow for MR imaging of the intraluminal area without substantial signal voids due to B0-induced artifacts. Whereas B1 is attenuated homogeneously in laser-cut stents, the B1 distortion in braided stents is more inhomogeneous and shows areas with enhanced amplitude. This could potentially be used in braided stent designs for intraluminal signal amplification.

      Keywords

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