Dose response of a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter for TomoTherapy, CyberKnife, and flattening-filter-free linear accelerator output measurements in dosimetry audit


      • We measured the RPLD dose responses for TomoTherapy, CyberKnife, and FFF linac units.
      • We determined the correction factors for each of these types of units.
      • We analysed the four-year audit results obtained with these factors.
      • The average difference between the measured and hospital-stated doses was <1%.
      • The RPLD is a suitable dosimetry audit tool for these modern treatment units.



      We experimentally determined the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLD) dose responses for TomoTherapy, CyberKnife, and flattening-filter-free (FFF) linear accelerator (linac) outputs for dosimetry audits in Japan.


      A custom-made solid phantom with a narrow central-axis spacing of three RPLD elements was used for output measurement to minimise the dose-gradient effect of the non-flattening filter beams. For RPLD dose estimation, we used the ISO 22127 formalism. Additional unit-specific correction factors were introduced and determined via the measured data. For TomoTherapy (7 units) and CyberKnife (4 units), the doses were measured under machine-specific reference fields. For FFF linac (5 units), in addition to the reference condition, we obtained the field-size effects for the range from 5×5 cm to 25×25 cm.


      The correction factors were estimated as 1.008 and 0.999 for TomoTherapy and CyberKnife, respectively. For FFF linac, they ranged from 1.011 to 0.988 for 6 MV and from 1.011 to 0.997 for 10 MV as a function of the side length of the square field from 5 to 25 cm. The estimated uncertainties of the absorbed dose to water measured by RPLD for the units were 1.32%, 1.35%, and 1.30% for TomoTherapy, CyberKnife, and FFF linac, respectively. A summary of the dosimetry audits of these treatment units using the obtained correction factors is also presented. The average percentage differences between the measured and hospital-stated doses were <1% under all conditions.


      RPLD can be successfully used as a dosimetry audit tool for modern treatment units.


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