Direct effect of the Directive Euratom 2013/59 on European hospitals hosting radionuclide therapies

      Radiotherapy involves irradiating tissue, often cancer cells, by irradiating this target with particles such as x rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons or ions. These particles interact with the tissue and produce by ionization free electrons and toxic free radicals proportionally to the energy imparted per unit of mass (named absorbed dose or shortly dose). Along their path, these particles produce by ionization toxic free radicals proportionally to the energy delivery per unit of mass (named dose). Irradiations are mainly performed in two ways. In external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), a medical device set outside the patient produces a particle beam that is focussed to the target. In brachytherapy sealed radiation sources are placed inside or close to the target, while in radionuclide therapy a vector labelled with a radionuclide is injected to the patient, the vector being designed to be preferably taken up by the target.
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