Monte Carlo-based independent dose verification of radiosurgery HyperArc plans

Published:August 26, 2022DOI:


      • This study describes the first application of Monte Carlo software for pre‐treatment verification of HyperArc SRS plans.
      • The freely available Monte Carlo software called PRIMO is used.
      • PRIMO software was used in conjunction with the space phase files freely distributed by Varian for a TrueBeam linac.



      To investigate the feasibility of using the free PRIMO Monte Carlo software for independent dose check of cranial SRS plans designed with the Varian HyperArc (HA) technique.

      Materials and methods

      In this study, the PRIMO Monte Carlo software v. was used with the phase-space files (v. 2, Feb. 27, 2013) provided by Varian for 6 MV flattening-filter-free (FFF) photon beams from a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (linac), equipped with a Millennium 120 multileaf collimator (MLC). This configuration was validated by comparing the percentage depth doses (PDDs), lateral profiles and relative output factors (OFs) simulated in a water phantom against measurements for field sizes from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm2. The agreement between simulated and experimental relative dose curves was evaluated using a global (G) gamma index analysis. In addition, the accuracy of PRIMO to model the MLC was investigated (dosimetric leaf gap, tongue and groove, leaf transmission and interleaf leakage).
      Thirty-five HA SRS plans computed in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) were simulated in PRIMO. The Acuros XB algorithm v. 16.10 (dose to medium) was used in Eclipse. Sixty targets with diameters ranging from 6 to 33 mm were included. Agreement between the dose distributions given by Eclipse and PRIMO was evaluated in terms of 3D global gamma passing rates (GPRs) for the 2 %/2 mm criteria.


      Average GPR greater than 95 % with the 2 %(G)/1 mm criteria were obtained over the PDD and profiles of each field size. Differences between PRIMO calculated and measured OFs were within 0.5 % in all fields, except for the 1 × 1 cm2 with a discrepancy of 1.5 %. Regarding the MLC modeling in PRIMO, an agreement within 3 % was achieved between calculated and experimental doses. Excellent agreement between PRIMO and Eclipse was found for the 35 HA plans. The 3D global GPRs (2 %/2 mm) for the targets and external patient contour were 99.6 % ± 1.1 % and 99.8 % ± 0.5 %, respectively.


      According to the results described in this study, the PRIMO Monte Carlo software, in conjunction with the 6X FFF Varian phase-space files, can be used as secondary dose calculation software to check stereotactic radiosurgery plans from Eclipse using the HyperArc technique.


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