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Performance of 3D diamond detectors in small field dosimetry: The impact of pixel size

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Kanxheri and Talamonti contributed equally to this paper.
    Keida Kanxheri
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia Universita’ degli studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Footnotes
    1 Kanxheri and Talamonti contributed equally to this paper.
    Affiliations
    Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia Universita’ degli studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Perugia, Perugia, Italy
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Kanxheri and Talamonti contributed equally to this paper.
    Cinzia Talamonti
    Footnotes
    1 Kanxheri and Talamonti contributed equally to this paper.
    Affiliations
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche “Mario Serio”, Firenze, Italy

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Firenze, Italy
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  • Silvio Sciortino
    Affiliations
    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Firenze, Italy

    Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita’ degli studi di Firenze, Firenze, Italy
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  • Stefano Lagomarsino
    Affiliations
    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Firenze, Italy

    Laboratory of Nano-Optics, University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany
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  • Maria Ionica
    Affiliations
    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Perugia, Perugia, Italy
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  • Mirco Caprai
    Affiliations
    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Perugia, Perugia, Italy
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  • Francesco Moscatelli
    Affiliations
    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Perugia, Perugia, Italy

    Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Perugia, Italy
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  • Leonello Servoli
    Affiliations
    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Perugia, Perugia, Italy
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Kanxheri and Talamonti contributed equally to this paper.
Published:September 18, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2022.09.006

      Highlights

      • Highly segmented pcCVD diamond detectors are fabricated using a pulsed laser grafitization technique.
      • All size pixels have dose rate linearity, repeatability and response homogeneity.
      • Small beam profile measurements with 3D detectors depend on the pixel size.
      • Small pixel beam profiles are in good agreement with PTW microDiamond and IBA SFD silicon diode.

      Abstract

      Purpose:

      Small photon beams used in radiotherapy techniques have inherent characteristics of charge particle disequilibrium and high-dose gradient making accurate dosimetry for such fields very challenging. By means of a 3D manufacturing technique, it is possible to create arrays of pixels with a very small sensitive volume for radiotherapy dosimetry. We investigate the impact of 3D pixels size on absorbed dose sensitivity, linearity of response with dose rate, reproducibility and beam profile measurements.

      Methods:

      Diamond detectors with different pixel sizes have been produced in the 3DOSE experiment framework. To investigate the pixels size impact, they were tested using an Elekta Synergy LINAC. Dose rate dependence, absorbed dose sensitivity, reproducibility and beam profile measurement accuracy have been investigated and compared with PTW 60019 and IBA SFD reference dosimeters.

      Results:

      All of the 3D pixels had a linear and reproducible response to the dose rate. The sensitivity of a pixel decreases with its size, although even the smallest pixel has a high absorbed dose sensitivity (15 nC/Gy). The penumbra width measured with the smallest pixel size was consistent with the PTW microDiamond and differed by 0.2 mm from the IBA SFD diode.

      Conclusions:

      The study demonstrates that variation in pixel size do not affect the linearity of response with dose rate and the reproducibility of response. Due to the 3D geometry, the absorbed dose sensitivity of the detector remains high even for the smallest pixel, furthermore the pixel size was demonstrated to be of fundamental importance in the measurement of beam profiles.

      Keywords

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