Research Article| Volume 110, 102603, June 2023

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Evaluation of operator eye exposure and eye protective devices in interventional radiology: Results on clinical staff and phantom


      • Eye lens dose was assessed in clinical and experimental conditions.
      • Dose reduction factors of various models of glasses and visors were determined.
      • Statistically significant correlation between Hp(3) and KAP was obtained.
      • DRF of 4 is suggested to obtain conservative estimates of the eye lens dose.



      To assess occupational eye lens dose based on clinical monitoring of interventional radiologists and to assess personal protective eyewear (PPE) efficacy through measurements with anthropomorphic phantom.


      Two positions of the operator with respect to X-ray beam were simulated with phantom. Dose reduction factor (DRF) of four PPE was assessed, as well as correlation between eye lens and whole-body doses. Brain dose was also assessed. Five radiologists were monitored for one-year clinical procedures. All subjects were equipped with whole-body dosimeter placed over lead apron at the chest level and eye lens dosimeter placed over the left side of the PPE. Kerma-Area Product (KAP) of procedures performed during the monitoring period was recorded. The correlation of eye lens dose with whole-body dose and KAP was assessed.


      DRF was 4.3/2.4 for wraparound glasses, 4.8/1.9 for fitover glasses, 9.1/6.8 for full-face visor in radial/femoral geometries. DRF of half-face visor depended on how it is worn (range 1.0–4.9). Statistically significant correlation between dose value over the PPE and chest dose was observed, while there was no correlation between eye lens dose and chest dose. The results on clinical staff showed statistically significant correlation between dose values over the PPE and KAP.


      All PPE showed significant DRF in all configurations, provided they were worn correctly. Single DRF value is not applicable to all clinical situations. KAP is a valuable tool for determining appropriate radiation protection measures.


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